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Research theme 4 (RT4): Biosphere upscaling

In RT 4, we will assess if there are biosphere-level consequences of global novel ecosystem spread, focusing on global vegetation structure and dynamics, global species richness in plants and vertebrates, and the impact of a novel biosphere on the climate system (e.g., via changes in carbon storage, albedo, and evapotranspiration), assessing if and how the ecological effects of novel ecosystems with and without restoration efforts scales up to affect the biosphere’s biodiversity and climate functioning