In WP2 we assess how, where, and by when Nature-based solutions (NbS) contribute to maintain biodiversity jointly with production in open land, forests, and cities. Through conceptualizing and quantifying NbS potential, WP2 will develop the scientific basis for NbS, evaluate their ecosystem services, and assess the effect magnitudes and dynamics during implementation. Within NbS, the focus will be on approaches restoring natural ecological processes, e.g., natural hydrology and grazing regimes, as envisioned in the ‘rewilding’ approach to ecosystem restoration, and NbS that promote sustainable crop rotation for carbon sequestration, erosion reduction, control of pests through natural enemies, and enforce crop pollination.
WP2 will address the research questions by a combination of nation-wide geospatial analyses plus field surveys, quantification of NbS potential, and mapping ecosystem processes and related ecosystem services, followed by spatial optimization scenarios, as well as re-assessments under future climate and societal scenarios (with WP3). The nation-wide studies will couple data on forest structure, management, production, and biodiversity using remote sensing data (e.g., 72 raster layers of vegetation and terrain structure derived from airborne LiDAR), national registers, and map data. NbS focused field surveys will be conducted in relation to SustainScapes field surveys and additionally involve both terrestrial and drone-based LiDAR alongside traditional survey methods of select NBS-related forest management and reforestation practices. The question of “What is the potential of city-related NbS for biodiversity and production in Denmark?“ will additionally be addressed through a systematic review, meta-analysis, manager-based assessments of NbS effects nationally, and stakeholder-based assessments (w. JrI-1.3 and WP4). WP2 builds on the world-class experience in NbS within SustainScapes and will provide new insight on the contribution and implementation of NbS across spatial scales (in collaboration with WP1 and WP3).
SustainScapes and WP2 builds on the world-class experience in NbS with in SustainScapes and will provide new insight on the contribution and implementation of NbS across spatial scales, and under future change.